Compulsive shopping (CS) is characterized by a preoccupation with shopping and spending that results in subjective distress and/or impairs quality of life [1,2]. CS was first described by Kraepelin and Bleuler at the beginning of the 20th century and was considered a reactive urge or impulsive insanity [3,4]. Interest was revived in the late 20th century by consumer behavior and psychiatric researchers working independently [5, 6, 7, 8, 9].
Classification and definition
The appropriate classification of CS has been debated. CS has been linked to substance use disorders, mood and anxiety disorders, and the obsessive-compulsive spectrum [1,2,7]. More recently, CS has been viewed as abehavioral addictionin which an act (eg, shopping, gambling, sex) takes on an addictive quality . CS is not included in DSM-5 , although the International Classification of Diseases, revision 11, includescompulsive shopping disorderas an example of
Faber and O'Guinn [5,6] used logistic regression to develop the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS) to identify individuals with CS. Seven items representing specific purchase-related behaviors, motivations, and emotions were found to be correctly classified by about 88% of subjects. This filter has become a gold standard in CS research.
Several questionnaires have been developed to help identify and diagnose CS. Valencia et al.  developed the compulsive buying of 13 species
Faber and O'Guinn  estimated the prevalence of CS to be between 1.8% and 8.1% of the general adult population of the United States based on the results of a mail survey. High and low prevalence estimates reflect different established thresholds for CS. Quran et al.  used CBS to identify individuals with CS in a random telephone survey of 2513 US adults and estimated a point prevalence of 5.8% of respondents. The estimate was calculated using CBS scores two standard deviations above the mean. maraz
CS must be distinguished from habitual shopping behavior and other disorders that may accompany excessive spending . Although the distinctions are sometimes arbitrary, frequent shopping alone is not evidence to support a diagnosis of CS. Regular shopping can also sometimes take on a compulsive quality, especially around holidays or birthdays, or if the person receives an inheritance or wins a lottery. Bipolar disorder can also cause excessive shopping and spending, which it is
Comorbidity of mood, anxiety, substance use, and personality disorders, particularly those belonging to the anxious cluster (Cluster C), is common in individuals with CS [1,44]. Compulsive Internet use , exercise dependence  and pathological gambling (PG)  are also common. In a family study of pathological gambling, Black et al.  reported that 17% of participants with PG had comorbid CS. They also observed a strong familial association between PG and CS and concluded that the disorders
Several group therapy treatment models have been developed and implemented over the past three decades [52, 53, 54]. Most use elements of cognitive-behavioral therapy that aim to help people interrupt and control their problematic shopping behavior, establish healthy shopping patterns, and develop healthy coping, stress management, and problem-solving skills. Contemporary pharmacotherapy studies have examined various drugs to control CS symptoms, including specific serotonin reuptake.
Compulsive buying is characterized by excessive or poorly controlled worries or urges that lead to subjective distress and may impair functioning. Some researchers suggest that it should be grouped with behavioral addictions, while others have linked it to mood and anxiety disorders or the obsessive-compulsive spectrum. CS has an onset in the late teens or early 20s and is, for most, chronic or episodic. The disorder is associated with co-occurring psychiatric disorders,
Declaration of conflict of interest
Compulsive online shopping disorder and social media use disorder: more similarities than differences?
2023, Integrative Psychiatry
Studies in non-clinical convenience samples of young adults suggest overlap between online compulsive shopping disorder (OCBSD) and social media use disorder (SNUD). Considering the paucity of research, this study investigated OCBSD and SNUD in clinical samples.
Women with OCBSD (norte= 37) or SNUD (norte= 41) on sociodemographic variables, time of first-choice app use, OCBSD/SNUD severity, general Internet use, impulsivity, materialism, perceived chronic stress, and affective posting frequency and urgency visiting shopping sites or social media after seeing posts from influencers.
Women in the OCBSD group were older, worked more often, had lower college entrance qualifications, reported less time spent daily on top choice practice, and higher materialistic values compared to those in the SNUD group. No group differences emerged for general Internet use, impulsivity, and chronic stress. Regression models show that chronic stress predicted symptom severity in the SNUD group but not in the OCBSD group. The SNUD group reported a higher frequency of viewing posts from influencers compared to the OCBSD group. The desire to shop online or use social media after seeing posts from influencers did not differ significantly between the two groups.
The findings suggest commonalities and distinct features of OCBSD and SNUD that warrant further investigation.
The currency of consumption: Understanding the light and dark sides
2023, Current Opinion in Psychology
2023, Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
Drink shopping: the impact of risky and harmful drinking patterns, impulsivity and compulsive buying
2023, Psychological Reports(Video) Compulsive buying disorder 💲 PERSONAL FINANCE 💲
Orientation to materialistic value and well-being
Current Opinion in Psychology, Volume 46, 2022, Article 101337
People with a strong material value orientation (MVO) believe that acquiring more money and expensive material goods will improve their well-being and social status. Paradoxically, the struggle to acquire more and more money and material goods as a means of improving well-being often undermines the quality of life. This article documents how MVO has been associated with lower well-being in various aspects of well-being (personal, social, and environmental) and that these negative associations have been recorded across the lifespan. However, it also shows that the connection is complex because it can be moderated by certain personal and cultural factors and is bidirectional in nature. Demonstrating a predominantly negative effect of MVO on well-being, the evidence highlights the need for interventions to reduce MVO and change the way people relate to material goods.(Video) I Am Addicted To Spending Money | Compulsive Shoppers Documentary | Absolute Documentaries
Why consumers have anything but happiness: an evolutionary mismatch perspective
Current Opinion in Psychology, Volume 46, 2022, Article 101347
The modern market has improved the lives of consumers in many ways, offering an abundance of economic conveniences and luxuries. So why is the prevalence of physical and mental health deficits greater than at any other time in history? Here, we articulate an evolutionary mismatch perspective: the idea that the environment we live in has changed dramatically over a short period of time, but the human body and mind have not. The evolved mind and body of consumers interact with the modern world as if it were an ancient environment that existed thousands of years ago, leading to many negative outcomes. We discuss three developmental dysfunctions that contribute to or exacerbate consumers' vulnerability to illness and life dissatisfaction. We review emerging research and suggest future directions that provide effective strategies to mitigate disease and improve well-being.
Optimization of holding portfolio
Current Opinion in Psychology, Volume 46, 2022, Article 101325
Most consumers live surrounded by natural goods, some of which are frequently used and others which are largely neglected. In this article, we introduce the concept of a “property portfolio” which we define as an individual's holistic sense (as opposed to an objective list) of the total physical assets he owns at any given time. We suggest that there is an optimal property portfolio for each individual where they feel they have balanced the benefits of holding the "right" number and type of assets without suffering the disadvantages of getting rid of too many possessions. In doing so, we highlight recent research on the valuation process that underlies the retention and disposal decisions made when people try to optimize their portfolios.
Why Drive: The utilitarian and hedonic benefits of self-expression through consumption
Current Opinion in Psychology, Volume 46, 2022, Article 101320(Video) Consumer behavior: how to stop impulse buying stuff you don't need
In response to a recent call for a better understanding of the drivers of self-expressive consumption; this review examines the most recent relevant research to identify two broad categories of benefits from self-expressive consumption. First, there are the utilitarian benefits derived from cognitively driven self-expressions aimed at satisfying the consumer's need to create and maintain his own identity. Second are the hedonic benefits that come from the simple act of self-expression and make the drinking experience more fun and enjoyable. This debate reflects a recent shift in the way researchers perceive self-expression, from a behavioral mechanism to a basic human need. In addition, the review highlights findings on various new forms of self-expressive consumption now appearing in the contemporary marketplace. Therefore, this review offers an insight into the positives of self-expressive consumption.
Can't you buy my point? Secular theories prevent people from deriving meaning and well-being from consumption
Current Opinion in Psychology, Volume 46, 2022, Article 101332
People search for meaning in the marketplace, but can meaning be bought? We review the emerging evidence and suggest that the typical association between meaning and well-being is weakened in consumer contexts. We outline two world beliefs that help explain this gap: the belief that shopping is external activities while meaning must come from intrinsic activities, and the belief that shopping is impure sources of meaning because businesses profit at the expense of people. This conceptual model suggests three paths to enhancing meaning and well-being through consumption: redefining markets as inherently rewarding, changing (erroneous) secular theories that profit necessarily comes at the expense of social good, or highlighting future benefits and resisting consumption .
Destigmatizing the 'win-win': making sustainable consumption sustainable
Current Opinion in Psychology, Volume 46, 2022, Article 101336
In this article, we review research on the discrepancy between consumers' self-reported high interest in sustainable products and the poor market performance of these products. We offer theoretically derived reasons why framing sustainable products as a “win-win” (ie, offering benefits to self and the common good) may be a solution to this intention–behaviour gap. Although previous research has typically found negative effects of win-win framing on sustainable consumption, we suggest that framing sustainable consumption as a win-win provides greater environmental, behavioral, and psychological benefits than framing it only in terms of self-benefits us or for everyone. elsewhere. the common good. We discuss how these effects may operate due to differences in moral hypocrisy, licensing, and goal representation, and offer avenues for future research to test these moderators in an effort to improve the effectiveness of the win-win framework.(Video) Hoarders: Most EXTREME Compulsive Shoppers - One-Hour Marathon | A&E
Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Compulsive buying can result in substantial debts, legal problems, personal distress, and marital conflict. Empirical research demonstrates that compulsive buying has psychiatric comorbidity with depression, impulse control disorders, eating disorders, alcohol dependence, nicotine dependence, and anxiety.Is impulse buying a coping mechanism? ›
People who engage in compulsive spending tend to use it as a coping mechanism. When faced with uncomfortable feelings like anxiety and depression they will feel the need to go shopping. In this case, spending money provides a brief reprieve from negative emotions.Why do I use shopping as a coping mechanism? ›
Shopping allows us to focus on one specific thing, a tunnel vision that makes us feel in control while other aspects of life may not be. Impulsive shopping and spending money is a coping mechanism many people use to feel better.What are solutions for compulsive buying disorder? ›
Treatment for compulsive buying disorder includes cognitive behaviour therapy, which has been found useful as it gives people skills to manage the compulsion and to deal with distress. It can also be treated with anti-craving medication that reduces the urge to engage in compulsive behaviours.Is compulsive shopping a symptom of bipolar? ›
Compulsive spending also increased for those with stronger thoughts about achievement, which are often higher in people with bipolar disorder.Is compulsive shopping a symptom of ADHD? ›
For many people with ADHD, it is hard to resist impulsive spending. Impulsivity is one of the major symptoms of ADHD, so it is not uncommon for those with ADHD to buy first and think later. Sure, impulsive spending may leave you with the challenge of storing all of your new purchases.What triggers impulse buying Behaviour? ›
Personality traits also have an important role in impulse buying. Impulsive buyers have low levels of self-esteem, high levels of anxiety, depression and negative mood and a strong tendency to develop obsessive-compulsive disorders.Is compulsive spending a mental illness? ›
Some professionals classify compulsive buying as an obsessive compulsive disorder, while others liken it to an impulse control disorder . Therefore, there is no one specific treatment for compulsive buying. Treatment for compulsive buying is determined by a provider after consulting with an individual.Is compulsive shopping a personality disorder? ›
Compulsive buying disorder is not officially recognized in the DSM. However, mental health professionals agree that this condition is a legitimate problem that can have a lasting impact on individuals and their loved ones, and treatment options are similar to treatments for other behavioral addictions.What is anxiety shopping? ›
Shopping anxiety can take two forms. You may find yourself compulsively buying to feel some relief or other satisfaction, or you may find yourself feeling worried and stressed whenever you go shopping. Shopping anxiety is treatable regardless of the underlying cause.
Overspending can happen for different reasons, such as: You might spend to make yourself feel better. Some people describe this as feeling like a temporary high. If you experience symptoms like mania or hypomania, you might spend more money or make impulsive financial decisions.What is the root cause of shopping addiction? ›
“Stress and anxiety are the most significant underlying causes of shopping addiction,” adds Sehat. Many people turn to gratifying behaviors as coping mechanisms, she says. “The endorphins released make the individual feel happy and less stressed.”What are the stages of compulsive buying? ›
Compulsive buying disorder is tightly associated with excessive or poorly managed urges related to the purchase of the items and spending of currency in any form; digital, mobile, credit or cash. Four phases have been identified in compulsive buying: anticipation, preparation, shopping, and spending.Do narcissists have shopping addictions? ›
Due to his sense of entitlement - he feels that he is entitled to other people's money. His grandiosity leads him to believe that he should have, or does have more money than he actually has. This leads to reckless spending, to pathological gambling, to substance abuse, or to compulsive shopping.Is compulsive shopping a symptom of depression? ›
For some people who are depressed, it is not uncommon for compulsive buying -- in stores or on the Internet -- to serve as a distraction or self-esteem booster.
The first and most common psychiatric comorbid disease to look for in compulsive buying is depression. McElroy, Keck et al. (1994)  found that among 20 patients with compulsive buying disorder, 19 meet the DSM-III-R criteria for lifelong diagnosis of a major mood disorder, most often bipolar disorder .Does Adderall help with impulsive spending? ›
Stimulants are the best-known and most widely used ADHD medications. They work quickly to reduce symptoms, including impulsivity, with effects lasting anywhere from four hours to 12 hours, depending on whether the formula is fast- or long-acting. Medications in this category include: Adderall XR (amphetamine)Is compulsive shopping a symptom of BPD? ›
BPD can cause all sorts of problems that can harm your finances, including: Impulsive behaviors like excessive spending: One of the diagnostic criteria for BPD is impulsive behavior that is potentially self-damaging. Many people with BPD spend money excessively, triggering emotional reactions and worsening symptoms.What is the difference between impulsive and compulsive shopping? ›
Impulsive shopping often stems from a momentary temptation, while compulsive shopping is caused by a need to seek pleasure and relieve feelings of distress.What are the 4 types of impulse buying? ›
The 4 types of impulse buying are: pure impulse (like buying candy at the check out), suggestion impulse, reminder impulse, and planned impulse. For social commerce, suggestion impulse, reminder impulse, and planned impulse can all be triggered to convert a sale.
- Food and groceries (50%)
- Clothing (43%)
- Vehicles (41%)
- Household items (35%)
- Coffee (31%)
- Books (22%)
- Takeout (22%)
- Technology (21%)
- Enjoyment: We tend to pick up things that make us happy. ...
- Loss aversion. ...
- Thinking you've spotted a bargain. ...
- The need to stockpile. ...
- Biased evaluation of use.
People with ADHD (especially women) tend to have lower levels of dopamine, so they often seek it where they can. The reward system in our brains is difficult to combat. This is why it feels so good at first to make impulsive purchases, and why it's so hard to stop.Can anxiety cause impulse buying? ›
1) Anxiety increases our likelihood of buying impulsively
Anxiety promotes impulsive shopping. Shopping impulsively, a.k.a., retail therapy, helps us feel better and gain some control over a situation that feels out of control. One study found that when sad people made shopping choices, it alleviated their sadness.
Indicators of Impulsive buying behavior
Spending lots of money than planned. Visiting businesses that often cause impulse purchases. Feelings of quick satisfaction following unplanned purchases. Frequently returning unplanned buying due to regret.
Most causes for compulsive shopping are psychological. Generally, a person will be having emotions of loneliness, depression, feel out of control in a particular area, and seek to spend money in order to relieve the stress.What personality disorder is compulsive? ›
Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) involves an extensive preoccupation with perfectionism, organization and control. People with OCPD have rigid beliefs and need to have control of themselves, others and situations.What is excessive buying? ›
Compulsive buying disorder is characterised by excessive or poorly controlled preoccupations, urges or behaviours regarding shopping and spending, which lead to adverse consequences.What is the characteristic of compulsive buyers? ›
Compulsive buying is chronic, repetitive purchasing that becomes a primary response to negative events and feelings. It is associated with craving and withdrawal and it is characterized by euphoria and/or relief from negative emotions. The prevalence rates of compulsive buying vary between 1% and 8% worldwide.What type of mental disorder is uncontrolled shopping? ›
Compulsive buying disorder (CBD) is characterized by excessive shopping cognitions and buying behavior that leads to distress or impairment.
One contributing factor is the stress and pressure you feel from trying to find something so quickly. Make sure you schedule enough time ahead to look for items, and if that's not possible, intentionally schedule a couple hours for shopping and be sure to go into the stores with an open mind.Is overspending a trauma response? ›
Overspending. Overspending or compulsive spending is another common response to financial trauma. This could look like anything from spending too much money on eating out or splurging on major purchases with money you don't have.How do I stop obsessing over spending money? ›
- Create a Budget. ...
- Visualize What You're Saving For.
- Always Shop with a List. ...
- Nix the Brand Names. ...
- Master Meal Prep.
- Consider Cash for In-store Shopping. ...
- Remove Temptation.
- Hit “Pause"
Five common money personalities are investors, savers, big spenders, debtors, and shoppers. Debtors and shoppers may tend to spend more money than is advisable. Investors and savers may overlap in personality traits when it comes to managing household money.Who is most likely to have a shopping addiction? ›
Despite the fact that people of all genders may shop too much, 80-94% of people seeking treatment for compulsive buying are women.What are the signs of shopping addiction? ›
- Negative Emotions & Low Self-Esteem. ...
- Preoccupation With Shopping. ...
- Shopping in Secret. ...
- Being Unable to Stop Shopping. ...
- Compromising Your Values or Well-Being to Shop. ...
- Feeling Guilty & Shameful About Purchases. ...
- Needing to Shop to Feel Normal. ...
- Biological Factors.
People with compulsive buying disorder frequently purchase items they do not use. While the emotional reasons for hoarding often vary, people with shopping addiction may develop hoarding disorder because they feel too guilty about the money they spent to relinquish the items they purchased.What is the strongest predictor of development of compulsive buying disorder? ›
By way of example, the study by Dittmar  is illuminating, as materialism is found to be the strongest predictor of individuals' compulsive buying from three samples (adults who had contacted a self-help organization, younger adults from a multinational corporation's consumer panel, and adolescents).What are the psychological effects of shopping addiction? ›
Mood disorders, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, hoarding disorder, impulse control disorder, gambling addiction, and substance use disorders are the most common psychiatric problems accompanying shopping addiction .What is the comorbidity of compulsive buying? ›
Compulsive buying is positively related to brand addiction, and brand addiction positively mediates the relationships between compulsive buying and debt avoidance, self-esteem and life happiness.
Consumer psychology is a specialty area that studies how our thoughts, beliefs, feelings, and perceptions influence how we buy and relate to goods and services. Consumer psychologists investigate how the decision-making process, social persuasion, and motivation influence why shoppers buy some things but not others.Are narcissists compulsive buyers? ›
Narcissists are characterized by reckless and impulsive behaviours: binge eating, compulsive shopping, pathological gambling, drinking, reckless driving.What are the characteristics of compulsive buying? ›
Compulsive buying disorder (CBD) is characterized by excessive shopping cognitions and buying behavior that leads to distress or impairment. Found worldwide, the disorder has a lifetime prevalence of 5.8% in the US general population.What are the 4 types of consumer buying behavior? ›
Consumer Behavior Types. Experts agree that there are four main types of consumer behavior: complex-buying behavior, dissonance-reducing buying behavior, habitual buying behavior, and variety-seeking buying behavior.What are the 4 factors of buying behavior? ›
There are four psychological factors that influence consumer behaviour: Motivation, perception, learning, and attitude or belief system.What are the four characteristics of buying behavior? ›
There are four factors that determine the characteristics of consumer behavior: personal, psychological, social, and cultural.What are the symptoms of a shopaholic? ›
- Spending more than they can afford.
- Shopping as a reaction to feeling angry or depressed.
- Shopping as a way to feel less guilty about a previous shopping spree.
- Harming relationships due to spending or shopping too much.
- Losing control of the shopping behavior.
Personality traits also have an important role in impulse buying. Impulsive buyers have low levels of self-esteem, high levels of anxiety, depression and negative mood and a strong tendency to develop obsessive-compulsive disorders.